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Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 255-259

Latest research progress on acute nephrotic syndrome


Department of Pharmacy, Himachal Institute of Pharmacy, Paonta Sahib (H.P), India

Date of Submission15-Sep-2017
Date of Decision20-Sep-2017
Date of Acceptance08-Oct-2017
Date of Web Publication27-Dec-2017

Correspondence Address:
Satinder Kakar
Department of Pharmacy, Himachal Institute of Pharmacy, Paonta Sahib (H.P)
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2221-6189.221288

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  Abstract 

Etiology of nephrotic syndrome is somewhat complex in nature. It may range from primary to secondary forms. Nephrotic syndrome patients often need immunosuppressive treatment although it has some side effects and may lead to renal disease which may be acute or severe. This review deals with herbal treatment and other recent approaches for treating symptoms of nephrotic syndrome.

Keywords: Nephrotic, Child, Protein


How to cite this article:
Kakar S, Kumar V, Singh R. Latest research progress on acute nephrotic syndrome. J Acute Dis 2017;6:255-9

How to cite this URL:
Kakar S, Kumar V, Singh R. Latest research progress on acute nephrotic syndrome. J Acute Dis [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Nov 18];6:255-9. Available from: http://www.jadweb.org/text.asp?2017/6/6/255/221288


  1. Introduction Top


Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is an acute renal disorder in pediatric population. It may occur in adult population also, but pediatric population is most affected. NS is having high amount of the protein in urine and low serum albumin, abundant albuminuria, generalized edema, and hyperlipidemia[1]. It occurs worldwide and captures at any age, but it generally occurs in initial years of life, more around 4-5 years and is more prevalent in spring season[2],[3]. No specific cause has been identified yet although there are many etiologic factors for it, and the renal pathology varies for different cases, but most seen in childhood cases, in temperate climates, and renal histology by light microscopy is unworthy and of little use. These cases are known as ‘minimal change’ NS and represents vast majority of patients. ‘Minimal change’ NS or idiopathic NS covers vast literature on NS in childhood. Diseases restricted to a particular place such as nutritional oedema and urinary schistosomiasis may simulate, distort, or uncertain renal pathology, and conditions of practice make impossible the use of radiologic, immunologic investigations etc., required to identify and characterize renal disorders, thus clinical recognition of renal disease is rendered difficult[4],[5].


  2. Types Top


2.1. Minimal change disease (MCD)

  1. Characterised as childhood NS, prevalent in 77%-85% of cases.
  2. Idiopathic in nature, some reports in adult cases showed an association with Hodgkin lymphoma.
  3. Renal biopsy samples when subjected to light microscopy showed no change.
  4. On electron microscopy, tissue thinning can be seen.
  5. Staining via florescence for immune complexes was negative.


2.2. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

  1. Prevalent in 10%-15% of cases.
  2. Characterised as adulthood NS.
  3. Light microscopy of renal biopsy sample showed sclerosis in portions of selected glomeruli, which can progress into global glomerular sclerosis.
  4. Tissue thinning was seen on electron microscopy, which was negative in most cases[6].



  3. Classification Top


NS is categorised as primary, secondary and miscellaneous ones. Primary form includes minimal change nephritic syndrome, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and membranous nephropathy. Secondary forms includes infections-hepatitis B and C, human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, toxoplasmosis, as well as syphills. Miscellaneous forms includes systemic lupus erythematosus, immuoglobulin A nephropathy and diabetes mellitus. Drugs used are gold, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, pamidronate, interferon, heroin and lithium.


  4. Pathophysiology Top


NS with inherited causes involves autosomal recessive type, NS type I, NS type Π and isolated diffuse mesangial sclerosis[7]. Glomerular filtration barrier has three layers that is fenestrated endothelium, glomerular basement membrane, visceral glomerular epithelium containing podocytes [Figure 1]. In NS, disturbance of the normal filtration process of glomerulus occurs, thus protein passage through filtration barrier due to three reasons including glomerular basement membrane’s defects, T-cells in the damage to podocytes leading to MCD of NS, and pathology changes according to the type of NS[8],[9] [Figure 2]. Also, there were some researches carried out on NS [Table 1].
Figure 1: Pathophysiology of NS.

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Figure 2: Glomerular filtration barrier.

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Table 1: Researches on NS.

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  5. NS in people of different age Top


NS is an acute disease, and is a MCD. T lymphocyte dysregulation and vascular factors affecting permeability that may change podocyte function and permselectivity are marked as important features according to the research studies. Podocyte proteins coded mutations in genes have also been identified. NS patients has high risk for infections and thromboembolic episodes. Persistent hyperlipidaemia and prolonged steroid therapy comes into play.

In variable population of patients, treatments with levamisole, cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine are useful differently. Steroid-resistant NS management is difficult; most patients show progressive renal damage and cannot achieve remission.

5.1. Idiopathic NS in children

Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus induces remission in a particular percentage of patients, but side effects involves nephrotoxicity. Reduction of proteinuria is also possible in children using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Steroid dependence and resistance, trials are necessary[20].

It covers more than 90% cases between 1-6 years of age[21]. It is defined by the association of the clinical features of NS with renal biopsy findings of diffuse foot process effacement on electron microscopy and minimal change on light microscopy[22]. Histologic findings of MCD are found in most patients, such vast majority of patients with MCD respond to glucocorticoid therapy[23].

5.2. Idiopathic NS in adults

The association of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with NS is common in children, but it is extremely rare in adults. Only 14 cases have been reported in the literature. Research showed two adult cases who developed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis during a course of NS, and described the clinical findings. Both patients had renal failure at admission and had a diagnosis of NS due to amyloidosis before the development of peritonitis. The causative agent could not be isolated from ascitic fluid culture in either patient[24].

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a infection caused by bacteria and is of ascitic fluid, which occurs in the absence of any other source of intra-abdominal infection. It is a common complication of childhood NS, and is rare in adults with NS[25] [Table 2].
Table 2: Reported incidence of NS associated with thromboembolism.

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  6. Precaution Top


6.1. Management

Normal diet was required including normal protein intake, salt restriction during relapses, limited oily foods and no junk foods and avoiding sauces with salt etc. Considering the antibiotics, oral penicillin was used during relapses to defense against pneumococcus causing infection. Use of frusemide if fluid restriction and salt restriction alone not effective in controlling oedema formation. IV albumin was used in severe oedema only, and maximum dose 1g/kg of 20% albumin over minimum for 4 h. Steroid therapy was applied when diagnosis was proved. If there is possibility of secondary NS discussion with nephrologist, it should be done prior to commencing steroid therapy[31].

6.2. Role of immunity

Idiopathic NS is thought to be the result of an immunological dysfunction, which brings a circulating factor thus permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier is modified. In 1974, Shalhoub[32] proposed that minimal change nephritic syndrome was a disorder of lymphocyte function, thus increased plasma levels of a lymphocyte-derived permeability factor. For example, the response to immunosuppressive drugs and the association with Hodgkin disease and allergy. Allergy plays a role as reviewed by van den Berg and Weening[33]. Many reports showed that some patients developed NS after having experienced allergic reactions to inhaled allergens, with vaccinations, food and insect stings. The incidence of atopy was reportedly higher in patients with idiopathic NS than in healthy subjects, ranging from 17% to 40% in minimal change nephritic syndrome patients compared with 10%-23% in age-matched control subjects. Elevated production of immunoglobulin E by B-lymphocytes occurred in case of allergy, and several researchers had reported an elevation of immunoglobulin E in the serum of NS patients.

The role of circulating factor is particularly suggested by the following observations[34].

  1. proteinuria after transplantation;
  2. proteinuria passed to foetus;
  3. after injection of serum proteinuria transferred to rat


As immunity enhancers homoeopathy medication can also be given side by side.

6.3. Herbal approach in management of NS

6.3.1. Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (T. Cordifolia)]

Swiss albino mice was used as an animal model, and urotoxicity was studied after inducing acute dose of cyclophosphamide. An alcoholic extract of the plant T. Cordifolia was administered (200 mg/kg i.p.) for 5 d for reduced cyclophosphamide (CP) (1.5 mmol/kg body weight i.p.) induced urotoxicity. Morphological analysis of bladder, and also decreased urea nitrogen level in blood as well as protein in urine were evidence for reduced CP induced urotoxicity. Severe necrotic damage was reported by Histopathological analysis of the bladder of CP alone treated group whereas normal bladder was reported in T. cordifolia treated group.

The study showed uroprotective role of T. cordifolia from CP induced toxicities[35].

6.3.2. Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (W. somnifera)]

Rat was used as an animal model. Doses 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg of W. somnifera root extract were administered orally to rats for 14 d before gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity (GEN) treatment and thereafter concurrently with GEN (100 mg/kg) for 8 d. In GEN-treated rats, all factors such as kidney weight, urea, creatinine, urinary protein and glucose increased, body weights and potassium reduced, which was histopathologically confirmed by tubular necrosis. However, W. somnifera (500 mg/kg) significantly reversed these changes when compared to other two doses of W. somnifera (250 and 750 mg/kg), and no significant changes in the levels of sodium in the experimental animals compared to control. Results showed the nephroprotective effects of W. somnifera, which could be by enhancing antioxidant activity with natural antioxidants and scavenging the free radicals[36].

6.3.3. Haridra (Curcuma longa)

The nephroprotective and diuretic effects of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa, alone and in combination were investigated against gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity. Animal model used was male Sprague Dawley rats. Forty two animals were randomly distributed into 6 equal groups. Rats in the first group were injected intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with saline solution (0.2 mL). Second group was injected with GM (80 mg/kg body weight) for 8 consecutive days. The other four groups were given orally aqueous infusion of the three herbs, alone and combined, (1 mL/rat, 150 mg/kg body weight) along with GM.

Blood and urine samples were taken for biochemical analysis after 24 h of the last administration. For detecting oxidant/antioxidant parameters and for histopathology, kidney specimens were taken. The results showed that GM-induced nephrotoxicity characterized by renal dysfunction as evident by biochemical and histopathological alterations, elevated lipid per-oxidation and reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues was ameloriated by oral administration of aqueous infusion of Petroselinum sativum, Eruca sativa and Curcuma longa herbs. It caused a nephroprotective effect evident by significant decreases in the elevated serum urea, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase activity and normalized the serum electrolytes level of sodium and potassium. It increased urine output and urinary concentration of Na+ and K+, denoting a diuretic activity. The nephroprotective effect of herbs could be due to the antioxidant effect of these herbs as evident by increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes. Thus, mixture of these three herbs are beneficial for patients having renal diseases[37].


  7. Treatments Top


Results of NS as acute renal failure, edema, hypercoagulation, and infections should be treated and dealed properly. Immunosuppressive drugs can be used to prevent relapses. However, recent experiments have shown that steroids and cyclosporine, may also act directly on the podocyte to stabilize its structure[38],[39].


  8. Conclusion Top


Major advances in the pathophysiological understanding have led to new treatment strategies in the past several years, even though the occurrence of primary causes of NS is low. Therefore, clinical trials should be done, and adult patients with NS should be treated with clinical trials in the future. Many new treatment targets identified by basic science have been proposed. More study of these new targets and those identified in the future will potentially lead to novel advances in the treatment of NS, with higher effectiveness in reducing proteinuria.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

 
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    Tables

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  In this article
Abstract
1. Introduction
2. Types
3. Classification
4. Pathophysiology
5. NS in people ...
6. Precaution
7. Treatments
8. Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

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